First Republican Party meeting in Ripon, Wisconsin.
President Abraham Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation.
Republican-controlled 38th Congress passes the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery.
With unanimous Republican support and against intense Democrat opposition, Congress passes the 14th Amendment.
Republican-controlled 42nd Congress establishes Yellowstone as first national park.
First African-American governor, Pinckney Pinchback (R-LA), inaugurated.
First woman in Congress, Rep. Jeannette Rankin (R-MT), sworn in.
Republican-controlled 66th Congress passes the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote.
Republican-controlled 68th Congress and President Calvin Coolidge grant citizenship to Native Americans.
First Hispanic U.S. Senator, Senator Octaviano Larrazolo (R-NM), sworn in.
Margaret Chase Smith (R-ME) becomes the first woman to serve in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Brown v Board of Education strikes down racial segregation in public schools; majority decision written by Chief Justice Earl Warren, former governor (R-CA) and vice presidential nominee.
President Dwight Eisenhower signs the 1957 Civil Rights Act.
First Asian-American U.S. Senator, Hiram Fong (R-HI), is seated.
Senate passes the 1964 Civil Rights Act when the Republican leader, Everett Dirksen (R-IL), defeats Democrat filibuster.
Sandra Day O’Connor, appointed by President Reagan, becomes first woman on the Supreme Court.
President Ronald Reagan calls for liberation of East Europeans from Communism with “Tear Down This Wall” speech.